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A major source for material goods introduced to Greece was the booty from the Persian Wars. A number of Athenian and other embassies to the king at Susa are attested; many more went to the satrap at Sardis. A general Persian policy of readiness to make significant dedications to native cults can but have helped (Briant, 1998); there is some indication that Anatolia imported religious ideas (Bivar, 2001). Funerary architecture occasionally reflects cultural interaction already early in the period of Persian control. Both significantly increase in number and variety in the second quarter of the 5th century. The griffin-fighting Arimasps (themselves an iconographic derivation from Persians) became very popular in arts of the 4th century. In contrast, the so-called Odeion of Perikles in Athens (3rd quarter 5th century), though unlike real Persian Apadana architecture, seemed to the Greeks to be so Persian in appearance that it gained the reputation as being an imitation of the tent of the Great King allegedly captured at Plataia.
Such communication allowed prominent Greek citizens an opportunity to witness the luxury culture of the Persian satrapal and royal courts. All of western Asia Minor, from Cilicia to the Troad, evidently acculturated to some degree; the many different ethnic backgrounds of the peoples of the region play a role only in the local variation. The precise relationship between the early “Pyramid Tomb” (unique for Sardis) and the Tomb of Cyrus at Pasargadae is problematic, but Achaemenid inspiration remains a possibility (Ratté; Kleiss). Cornelia Ewigleben, “An Atelier of Silversmiths in Western Thrace: The Jug Cat. 155 from Rogozen and its Connections to the Vessels with Figural Reliefs from Poroina, Strelca, Loukovit and Vratsa,” in B. Cook, ed., , Archäologische Forschungen 16, Berlin, 1987. The greater volume in the post-war period surely reveals the role of Persian War spoils in shaping Athenian tastes and desires. Seals probably inspired the resurgent interest in animal-combat groups in 4th-century Athens (Miller, 1997, pp. One 4th-century marble relief, though manufactured in Athens (the marble is local), bears witness to the replication of Persian iconography in Athens with its “Royal Hero” flanked by two lion-griffins and lion attack group, both paralleled by seals (Bivar; Miller, 1997, p. In some instances, the inner markings of the griffin depicted bear close resemblance to Achaemenid cloisonné work, as on an Attic red-figure pelike (PLATE XII, St. Its pyramidal roof, also strikingly un-Greek in appearance (as well as un-Persian), re-enforced the impression. E., the Sanctuary of Herakles of Thasos, whose cult, we are told, was imported from the Phoenicians (Herodotus, 2.44), had a winged horse protome functioning as a sort of free anta capital of a long gallery.
While some of the sealings are manifestly Persian, bearing the names of Xerxes and Artaxerxes in Old Persian and images copied from the imperial centers (AMI 22, 1989, p. 1." href="/img/v11f3/Greece_ii_plate01.jpg"PLATE I; Kaptan, 1996; idem, 2001), others share affinities with the coinage of nearby Greek cities like Kyzikos and must be local products (Kaptan, 1990; idem, 2000). Yet the form of the stelai and their workmanship reveal a local production. The response ranges from close imitation, to moderate adaptation, to modification of existing vessel types, either in profile or surface treatment. The Persian Empire (perhaps particularly the western satrapies) provided models.
Sculpted stelai and related funerary reliefs exhibit a distinctive iconography of social (hunting on horseback and banqueting), funerary, and ritual practices, and they range in date from about 500 B. The discovery of Perso-Anatolian sarcophagi at recent excavations of tumuli in the wider region testifies to the spread of Persian culture between the late 6th and 4th centuries (Sevinç, 1996, 1998, 1999, and forthcoming). imported Achaemenid Persian goods played a significant role in articulating social divisions in the emergent Odryssian kingdom of Thrace. The Thracian silver jug is an adaptation of the Persian amphora (Ewigleben, p. Bowls and jugs are well exemplified by the Rogozen Treasure (Fol, Nikolov, and Hoddinott, passim). may be an import or a local product (Lilibake-Akamate; Paspalas, 2000b). at Dion imitates hanging Achaemenid textiles, with pacing lion and radiate lion-head motifs (Soteriades; Boardman). One may suppose that the same response occurred in Greek metalware, but Greek metalware rarely survives (see Shefton, pp. The Attic “calyx cup” with its petal-grooving imitated the lobed Achaemenid deep bowl for the period around 350-260 B. The social differentiation implicit in differences in leisure gained new physical attributes in the later 6th and 5th centuries: the parasol, the fan, and the flywhisk (PLATE XIV, above; PLATE XV, Paestum, Salerno, Museo Archeologico Nationale).
67-68), as well as Gordion in the interior, where trade with Greece is even said to have increased under Persian domain (Voigt, pp. Very few examples of actual Persian imports survive in the Greek world (Miller, pp. Traded goods introduced to Greece included such items as foodstuffs, textiles, glass, slaves, and possibly toreutic. E.), whose wealth far exceeded anything within Greek imagination, became legendary and was probably the single largest intrusion of Persian (and other foreign) goods into Greek society (Herodotus, 9.80-83), but there is reason to suppose that substantial booty was also won at Marathon (490 B. E.) and especially at the battle of the Eurymedon River (466 B. E.), as well as at various other engagements on land and sea throughout much of the 5th century B. Though items in precious metals were doubtless soon melted down, some traces indicate that not all were, or if they were, their unusual qualities were remembered: the most striking instance is a Persian bracteate design that appears as a shield device in Attic red-figured vase-painting about 490-470 B. Whereas goods gained in trade or as booty are already divorced from their cultural context, participants in diplomatic missions were able to penetrate the environment of the upper echelons of the empire. Reyes, “Mesopotamian Contact and Influence in the Greek World 2: Persia, Alexander, and Rome,” in Stephanie Dalley, ed., , Topoi: Orient-Occident, Suppl. ” in Carl Werner Müller, Kurt Siert, and Jürgen Werner, eds., , Proceedings of the Achaemenid History Workshop (London, 1985), Leiden, 1988, pp. Idem, “Achaemenid Settlement in Caria, Lycia, and Greater Phrygia,” in Amélie Kuhrt and Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg, eds., , 1999, pp. Acculturation would seem not to have been imposed from above (though it may have been encouraged), but to have been part of a natural process of gradual re-alignment to the new dominant power in the region. Imperial-style cylinder seals were evidently made at Sardis (Dusinberre, 1997); and the pyramidal seal, though not originating there in its Achaemenid guise as previously thought, was eagerly emulated from an early date (Root; Boardman, 1998; idem, 2000, pp. It is therefore likely that the thin gold bracteates with Persian motifs from the chamber tombs of Sardis were also local products (Curtis, nos. There is little evident response to Achaemenid jewelery, except for the occasional work with cloisonné or “kidney-shaped” animal-protome bracelet, which are perhaps imports (Özgen and Öztürk). Such vessels in Attica include animal-head drink-ing cups and horizontally-fluted beakers as well as deep bowls, ranging in date from the end of the 6th century throughout the 5th century B. Instances of imitation and adaptation first appear in Athens by the end of the 6th century, and are essentially contemporary responses to the first generations of contact with Achaemenid culture in Asia Minor. Later classical (i.e., 4th century) graphic arts reveal that importation of minor arts (textiles, jewelery, seals) also inspired a new interest in monsters, like the griffin in the earlier Greek repertoire. 58) and on a winged griffin pebble mosaic pavement from mid-4th century Sikyon, with its red patches echoing the stylized musculature of Persian animal art (Salzmann, p. The earliest such halls, the archaic Telesterion at Eleusis (second half of the 6th century and its classical successor, as well as the 5th-century civic building at Argos, were more probably the natural result of a cultic or, in the case of Argos, civic need for a large enclosed interior space.
Diplomatic gifts frequently included luxury toreutic and fine textiles; and, once, peacocks (Miller, pp. Diplomacy also involved dedications, like the robe dedicated by Pharnabazos of Daskyleion to Athena (Harris, p. At the other end of the social scale (as high-ranking Persians are rarely attested in Greece), immigrants, especially to Athens in the time of its own mid-5th-century imperial peak, must have served as a valuable means of communication. The apparent novelties of social practises depicted in sculpture and painting may well be Anatolian, in which case the Persian addition is in details of clothing, equipment, vessels, and sometimes composition. The Lydian kingdom based at Sardis was the dominant monarchy in the region for at least a century before the Persian conquest and Sardis remained an imperial center, even as it was the “Persian” city best known to the Greeks. E., the vessels (notably lobed and fluted shallow bowls, incense burners, and strainer) emulate the shapes and decorative devices of the Achaemenid centers or, in the case of the lidded jug, modify a traditional Lydian form in accordance with Achaemenid taste (Özgen and Öztürk, p. One rock-cut tomb at Sardis (Tomb 813) has a hybrid form, featuring both Lydian and Achaemenid elements (Dusinberre, 1997, pp. Remains of carts found at tombs reveal interaction between Persians and Anatolians in funerary arrangements (Kökten-Ersoy). Daskyleion, whose excavation has recently been resumed, promises to be crucially important to the understanding of local receptivity to Persian culture, as the extent of post-Achaemenid construction is comparatively limited. Margaret Cool Root, “Lifting the Veil: Artistic Transmission Beyond the Boundaries of Historical Periodisation,” in Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Amélie Kuhrt, and Margaret Cool Root, eds., , Internationale Archäologie 20, Rahden, 1998. CULTURAL RELATIONS WITH GREECE (EXTRA-IMPERIAL) The study of mainland Greek cultural relations with Persia in the classical period is still in its infancy so that it is at present not really possible to discuss it from a chronological perspective or even in terms of regional variation except in the grossest fashion. None of these can be characterised as export products as many examples have a Greek provenance. It probably was deliberately created to evoke a Persian atmosphere, for the Athenians’ own imperial propagandistic purposes (Miller, 1997, pp. The double animal-protome capital, another distinctive feature in Achaemenid architecture, was also occasionally emulated. Much later, the bull protomes of a late 4th-century shed for a ship dedicated to Apollo on Delos, the “Monument des taureaux,” are also ascribed to an Achaemenid model (Roux, pp. The Attic-Ionic column base in the Stoa of the Athenians at Delphi (470-450 B. E.), which perhaps commemorated a victory against the Persians, has been thought to allude to the Persian bell base (Amandry, pp. 140-41); but the victory may not have been against Persians (Walsh); and the ultimate genealogy of the form may be Greek (Boardman, pp. Some of the most prominent victory monuments from the Persian Wars perhaps include quotations of Near Eastern iconography to project their message: the serpent column with its golden tripod at Delphi, constructed to celebrate the victory at Plataia, is found to have Elamite antecedents (Stähler, 1992, pp. Herodotus (9.80.2) comments on the wealth of textiles captured at Plataia, and clothing frequently appears among royal gifts in the Near East.
Both slaves and freemen composed part of the Athenian population, and their numbers included many peoples from areas under Persian control (Miller, pp. In the later 5th and 4th centuries, Greek mercenaries served under Persian commanders. Archeologically, early strata have suffered from the importance of the Roman city which has long submerged the prior Hellenistic and Persian periods, and also from the frequent success of tomb-robbers in anticipating excavation of intact burials. The building complex at Larisa on the Hermos was believed by its excavator to be the palace of tyrants or dynasts from the end of the 6th century B. E., and its facade has been reconstructed along Achaemenid lines (Böhlau and Schefold; Schefold). The region displays a different pattern of receptivity to Persian culture than that of Sardis, perhaps owing to the fact that it was Phrygian rather than Lydian, and that in its recent past the city had been a minor center under Lydian sway rather than a royal capital. Current research has focused on Athens, but evidence from elsewhere in Greece is also noted; more will emerge from excavation and further study of excavated finds. Other regions in Greece produced ceramic versions of the Achaemenid deep bowl after the Macedonian conquest of the Persian Empire: Thebes (Pfrommer, p. A more derivative response to Achaemenid metalware can be seen in the introduction of various surface treatments to, or modifications to the profile of, a pre-existing Greek vessel type. Later, a pair of ivory reliefs excavated at Demetrias in Thessaly, and dating from 4th or 3rd century B. E., depict a Persian in audience and banqueting in a manner akin to the Perso-Anatolian tradition. Some captured textiles or bracteates must lie behind the sudden appearance of lion heads with radiating locks, known in a number of Persian media, as a shield-device on a number of Attic red-figure vases of about the Persian war period, i.e., about 490-475 B. 15-22; Laroche), and the “Eurymedon Palm,” also at Delphi (Stähler, 1989). The nature of the evidence makes discussing clothing very difficult as textiles rarely survive in either Greece or the Near East. The origin of each is eastern, though only one, the (a Greek word of uncertain etymology) is certainly Persian; this cloak with unused sleeves is best known from depictions on the reliefs at Persepolis. It appears at the end of the 6th century, and seems to originate from the Levant. From time to time more highly decorated textiles – the decorations taking the form of stacked friezes – are manifest in Greek art (as in the first decades of the 6th and last decades of the 5th century), though it is not completely certain that their appearance in art is co-extensive with and reflective of a similar alteration of taste in decorated textiles in life. There was a considerable disjunction between reality and representation in many aspects of the lifestyle of classical Greece.
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Literary evidence generally presents a picture of hostility between the Persian and Greek worlds, with Macedonia, Thrace, and west Anatolia comprising much of the battle ground; the focus in the historical record on the military conflicts and diplomatic relations implies little cultural exchange.